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October 2013 Research News Reporter

October 2013

 

Research Making the News

  1. “Gender Pay Gap Likely Won't Go Away Until After You Retire: Study”
  2. “125,000 Jobs Gained by Women in August: Job Growth for Women Continues to Accelerate”
  3. “Number of the Week: Rise of Single Moms Drives Down Overall Income”
  4. “U.S. Lags Behind Mexico, Canada, Much Of Europe In Happiness, Study Says”
  5. “Paid Vacation’s Decline”
  6. “Life Expectancy Gap Growing Between Rich/Poor World Women - WHO”

Research Reports

  1. The Gender Wage Gap:2012
  2. Gender Poverty Gap Grows in Recovery: Men's Poverty Dropped Since Recession, Women's Poverty Stagnates
  3. Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity
  4. The New Safety Net? Supplemental Security Income after Welfare Reform
  5. Living Below the Line: Economic Insecurity and America’s Families
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Rate Review Annual Report

Research Making the News

 

Each selection includes a short excerpt, link to the news article, and link to the research cited:

 

1. “Gender Pay Gap Likely Won't Go Away Until After You Retire: Study”

By Jillian Berman
The Huffington Post
September 23, 2013

Citing: Gender Wage Gap Projected to Close in Year 2058: Most Women Working Today Will Not See Equal Pay during their Working Lives, by Institute for Women's Policy Research

“Most women that are employed today will probably retire before they see pay equality in the workplace. […]

That's because the gender wage gap -- or the difference between average full-time pay for women and men -- isn't expected to close until 2058, according to a projection from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, a think tank focused on women’s policy issues. […]

The amount of time researchers project it will take for the pay gap to close has actually gotten worse since IWPR began doing this analysis a few years ago, according to Heidi Hartmann, IWPR’s president. You can blame that on the fact that women's real earnings have essentially remained flat over the past few years, slowing their progress in catching up to men. […]

Women earned about 77 cents for every dollar that men earned last year, the Census Bureau reported last week, a figure that’s stayed roughly the same since 2007, before the economic downturn. […]

A combination of reasons is likely to blame for why female workers’ earnings aren’t catching up to mens’ more quickly, Hartmann said. First of all, the fact that wage growth has been slow for the nation’s bottom earners affects women more than men because they’re more likely to be concentrated in low-paying sectors. […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the publication, click here. To learn more about the Institute for Women’s Policy Research visit our website.

 

2. “125,000 Jobs Gained by Women in August: Job Growth for Women Continues to Accelerate”

By Institute for Women's Policy Research
Yahoo News!
September 6, 2013

Citing: Quick Figures Report “125,000 Jobs Gained by Women in August: Job Growth for Women Continues to Accelerate” by Institute for Women’s Policy Research

“According to analysis by the Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR) of the September employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job growth remained anemic in August for men, but accelerated for women. Of the 169,000 total jobs added to nonfarm payrolls in August, women gained 125,000 jobs (74 percent) while men gained 44,000 jobs (26 percent). […]

Women's employment growth in August was aided by growth in Education and Health Services (49,000 jobs added for women), Retail Trade (36,400 jobs), Professional and Business Services (24,000 jobs), and Leisure and Hospitality (18,000 jobs). […]

IWPR analysis of the BLS payroll data shows as of August, women have regained 99 percent (2.7 million) of the total jobs they lost in the recession from December 2007 to the trough for women's employment in September 2010 (2.72 million). Men have regained 69 percent (4.2 million) of the jobs they lost between December 2007 and the trough for men's employment in February 2010 (6 million). Even so, the gap between women's and men's employment is 1.5 million jobs in August. […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the report,click here. To learn more about the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, visit our website.

 

3. “Number of the Week: Rise of Single Moms Drives Down Overall Income”

By Ben Casselman
The Wall Street Journal
September 21, 2013

Citing: Household Income: 2012 by Amanda Noss, US Census Bureau

“New data this week showed once again that it’s been a rough couple decades for the American middle class. Median household income barely budged in 2012, and is actually lower, after adjusting for inflation, than it was in 1989. […]

Median income is often described as the amount earned by the “typical” family. That’s true, but it’s also a bit misleading. Change in median income compares the typical household of the past to the typical household of today — and the typical American family looks a lot different now than it did two decades ago. Back then, Americans as a whole were younger, whiter and less educated than they are today. […]

[…] In 1980, married couples made up 80% of all families with children. A decade later, that figure had fallen below 75%. Today, it’s less than two-thirds. The number of families headed by single moms — any mother with no spouse present, regardless of whether she has a live-in partner — has increased more than 30% since 1990, to more than 10 million. […]

In terms of income growth, single moms aren’t actually doing much worse than their married counterparts — their median income is up 14% since 1990, nearly as much as for married parents. But they earn far less in absolute terms. The median income for a family headed by a single mother was $25,493 in 2012, which means roughly 5 million single mothers earn less than $25,000 a year. […]

The stagnation in parents’ incomes, in other words, is due in significant part to the changing nature of the American family. Since single parents make much less than married couples, more single parents means a lower median income for all parents. (One important caveat: The Census’s definition of “family” exaggerates this effect because it includes only the income of married partners. Looking at household income, which includes the earnings of everyone living together regardless of their relationship, would mitigate the effect somewhat, but the government doesn’t provide as detailed a breakdown of household earnings.) […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the US Census Bureau, visit their website.

 

4.  “U.S. Lags Behind Mexico, Canada, Much Of Europe In Happiness, Study Says”

By Andrew Bender
Forbes
September 20, 2013

Citing: World Happiness Report 2013, by John Helliwell, Richard Layard and Jeffrey Sachs, UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network

“[…] The U.S. came in 17th among 156 nations surveyed. In the top 10 are much of Europe plus Canada and Australia. Mexico and Israel, countries not always known for lives of ease, are happier than we are, and the U.S. is only slightly ahead of Venezuela. […]

The study was conducted by the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Solutions Network and released in time for the U.N.’s General Assembly session this week. “More and more world leaders are talking about the importance of well-being as a guide for their nations and the world,” says Jeffrey D. Sachs, director of SDSN and the Earth Institute at Columbia University.[…]

Researchers examined six factors that contribute to individual happiness: (1) GDP per capita, (2) healthy life expectancy, (3) perceived corruption in government and business sectors, (4) citizens’ perceived freedom to live the lives they wanted, (5) generosity (i.e. whether they had recently given to charity) and (6) “social support,” namely whether they had a friend or relative to count on in case of emergency. […]

Happiness does more than just make us feel warm and fuzzy inside. “Higher levels of subjective well-being can both directly and indirectly influence health,” the study says, alongside more recognized factors like exercise and not smoking, which can also increase life expectancy. The study also correlates stress and depression with unhealthy practices such as obesity and smoking. […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the, UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network visit their website.

 

5. “Paid Vacation’s Decline”

By Catherine Rampell
The New York Times
September 3, 2013

Citing: Paid leave in private industry over the past 20 years, by Robert W. Van Giezen, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics

“Americans working in the private sector are less likely to have paid vacation days than was the case 20 years ago, according to a recent report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.[…]

In 1992-93, 82 percent of American workers reported receiving paid vacation days. Today the share is down to 77 percent. The biggest declines occurred for people working part time and for people working at establishments with fewer than 100 employees. […]

For most other kinds of paid leave, though, employees’ access has increased. […]

For example, while the United States still remains one of just a handful of countries worldwide that don’t require paid maternity leave, the share of American private sector workers who do have access to paid family leave has risen. It is still very rarely offered, though. […]

Vacation time, while less common among private sector workers over all, appears to have become somewhat more generous for those full-timers who do have access to it. The average private sector, full-time worker got eight days of vacation after a year of service in 1992-93, versus 10 days for his counterpart in 2012. […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics visit their website.

 

6. “Life Expectancy Gap Growing Between Rich/Poor World Women - WHO”

By Stephanie Nebehay
Reuters
September 1, 2013

Citing: Global mortality trends and patterns in older women by Gretchen A Stevens, Colin D Mathers, and John R Beard, World Health Organization

“Life expectancy for women at 50 has improved, but the gap between poor and rich countries is growing and could worsen without better detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancers, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Monday. […]

A WHO study, one of the first to analyse the causes of death of older women, found that in wealthier countries deaths from noncommunicable diseases has fallen dramatically in recent decades, especially from cancers of the stomach, colon, breast and cervix. […]

Women over 50 in low and middle-income countries are also living longer, but chronic ailments, including diabetes, kill them at an earlier age than their counterparts, it said. […]

The gap in life expectancy between such women in rich and poor countries is growing, said the WHO study, part of an issue of the WHO's monthly bulletin devoted to women's health. […]

Beard, one of the study's three authors, said: ‘What it also points to is that we need particularly in low and middle-income countries to start to think about how these emerging needs of women get addressed. The success in the rich world would suggest that is through better prevention and treatment of NCDs. […]”

To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the report, click here. To learn more about the World Health Organization, visit their website.

 

New Research


Each selection includes a short excerpt from the research and a link to the report.

1. The Gender Wage Gap: 2012

Ariane Hegewisch and Claudia Williams
Institute for Women’s Policy Research
September 2013

“The ratio of women’s and men’s median annual earnings was 76.5 percent for full-time/year-round workers in 2012. This means the gender wage gap for full-time/year-round workers is 23.5 percent. Women’s median annual earnings in 2012 were $37,791 compared with $49,398 for men. The gender wage gap has stayed essentially unchanged since 2001. In the previous decade, between 1991 and 2000, it closed by almost four percentage points, and in the decade prior to that, 1981 and 1990, by over ten percentage points (Table 2). If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 45 years, until 2058, for men and women to reach parity.”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, visit our website.

 

2. Gender Poverty Gap Grows in Recovery: Men's Poverty Dropped Since Recession, Women's Poverty Stagnates

Jeff Hayes, Ph.D., Barbara Gault, Ph.D., and Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D.
Institute for Women’s Policy Research
September 2013

“The persistent gap in male and female poverty has been growing during the economic recovery, with 16.3 percent of females, and 13.6 percent of males living in poverty in 2012. The gender poverty gap reached an historic low in 2010 just after the official end of the recession, when 16.2 percent of females, and 14.0 percent of males lived in poverty […]”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, visit our website.

 

3. Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity

Katrin Elborgh-Woytek, Monique Newiak, Kalpana Kochhar, Stefania Fabrizio, Kangni Kpodar, Philippe Wingender, Benedict Clements, and Gerd Schwartz
International Monetary Fund
September 2013

“[…] This Staff Discussion Note examines the specific macro-critical features of women’s participation in the labor market, the constraints preventing women from developing their full economic potential, and possible policies to overcome these obstacles. Implementing policies that remove labor market distortions and create a level playing field for all will give women the opportunity to develop their potential and to participate in economic life more visibly. The analysis presented in this Staff Discussion Note is based on research undertaken in academia and by other international financial institutions, in addition to the IMF’s own surveillance and research work.”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the International Monetary Fund, visit their website.

 

4. The New Safety Net? Supplemental Security Income after Welfare Reform

Lucie Schmidt
Williams College Department of Economics
September 2013

“Over the past twenty years, the Supplemental Security Income Program (SSI), which provides federally-funded income support for disabled individuals, has become one of the most important means-tested cash aid programs in the United States. This growth has been accompanied by growing concerns about the nature of the program and its role as a “new safetynet.” In this paper, I use state panel data, exploiting variation both across states and over time, toexamine the relationship between welfare reform and SSI disabled caseloads for both adults and children. I also examine whether the relationship between SSI participation and other factors (economic, health-related, and political) has been fundamentally altered in the aftermath of welfare reform. Results suggest that welfare reform significantly increased SSI participation, and changed the relationship between other conditions and SSI participation. Notably, the SSI program has become more responsive to business cycles for women and children since welfare reform.”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the Williams College Department of Economics, visit their website.

 

5. Living Below the Line: Economic Insecurity and America’s Families

By Shawn McMahon and Jessica Horning
Wider Opportunities for Women
Fall 2013

“Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) has compared working-age adults’ earnings and household incomes to The Basic Economic Security Tables (BEST) for the United States, a measure of the basic needs and assets workers and their households require for economic security. Living Below the Line: Economic Insecurity and America’s Families compares pre-tax incomes from 2007 through 2011 to BEST basic needs budgets for more

than 400 family types, and finds that approximately 45% of Americans live on incomes that fail to provide basic economic security. This report identifies who, specifically, within the United States is living below the BEST Indexes. It tells an important story about the contemporary value of work and the relationship between economic security and gender, race/ethnicity, family structure and education. […]”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about Wider Opportunities for Women, visit their website.

 

6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Rate Review Annual Report

By U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
September 12, 2013

“An analysis from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) of rate review activities in calendar year (CY) 2012 shows that the rate review process saved consumers approximately $1.2 billion on their premiums when compared to the amount initially requested by insurers. These savings accrued to 6.8 million people. In the individual market, the average rate request increase dropped by 12 percent (from 8.1 percent to 7.1 percent) after rate review, saving consumers an estimated $311 million. Similarly, in the small group market, the average rate increase request declined by 19 percent (from 5.8 percent to 4.7 percent), saving consumers an estimated $866 million after rate review. This is in addition to the $500 million in medical loss ratio rebates for 2012, for a total $1.7 billion in savings in 2012.”

To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, visit their website.

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