IWPR's Research News Reporter is distributed to highlight informative, innovative, and sometimes controversial research related to women and their families.
Research Making the News
Research Making News ____________________________
Each selection includes a short excerpt, link to the news article, and link to the research cited:
By Joanna Sullivan
Back to Work, a Baltimore Business Journal blog
September 19, 2011
Citing: The Gender Wage Gap: 2010 by Ariane Hegewisch and Claudia Williams, Institute for Women's Policy Research.
"The latest numbers from the Institute for Women's Policy Research, a Washington, D.C. think tank, show that despite women making big gains in education and training, the salary gap remains.
The wage gap closed by 10 percentage points between 1981 and 1990, but closed by only four percentage points between 1991 and 2000. The wage gap ratio [was] virtually unchanged at 77.4 percent in 2010, compared to the previous year.
'As the economy begins to improve, I hope we will see women's lagging job growth improve, as well as their wages,' said Heidi Hartmann, president of the Institute for Women's Policy Research.
[...] Apparently, minority women have it much worse off than their white colleagues.
Hispanic women's median earnings are little more than half of white men's earnings at 54.5 percent and black women's median earnings are only slightly higher at 62.8 percent, the Institute for Women's Policy Research reported."
By Sean Stanleigh
The Globe and Mail
September 29, 2011
Citing: Overcoming the Gender Gap: Women Entrepreneurs as Economic Drivers by Lesa Mitchell, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.
"A new report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation states that American women who start growth companies that serve global markets may be "the secret weapon" for achieving sustained economic growth. Its research shows that high-growth startups are the most fruitful source of new U.S. jobs. Despite the fact that about 46 per cent of the U.S. work force, and more than 50 per cent of college students, are female, and that women have climbed to top positions in corporate and university hierarchies, they represent only about 35 per cent of startup business owners.
Their firms [...] also tend to experience less growth and prosperity than companies started by men.
[...] Other studies show that women might be more inclined to seek work/life balance and shy away from establishing innovative firms that aim for global scale. On average, they also have greater difficulty raising investment capital than men do."
By Sabrina Tavernise
The New York Times
September 28, 2011
Citing: The Toll of the Great Recession: Childhood Poverty Among Hispanics Sets Record, Leads Nation by Mark Hugo Lopez and Gabriel Velasco, Pew Hispanic Center.
"Hispanic children living in poverty in the United States outnumber poor white children for the first time, a demographic shift that was hastened by the recession, according to a report released Wednesday by the Pew Hispanic Center.
The number of Hispanic children in poverty jumped by 36 percent from 2007 to 2010, to a total of 6.1 million, compared with 5 million non-Hispanic white children who are poor, said the report, which analyzed recent data from the Census Bureau.
[...] Hispanics make up 16 percent of the overall American population, but they are a quarter of the country's children.
[...] Children of immigrant parents were far more likely to be poor. Of the 6.1 million Latino children living in poverty, more than two-thirds had immigrant parents, according to the Pew report. Most of those children were born in the United States. The other two million had parents born in the United States.
While the number of Hispanic children in poverty is the highest ever, the poverty rate - 35 percent in 2010 - is well under its 1994 peak of 41 percent.
Nor do Hispanics have the largest share in poverty of all racial and ethnic groups. In 2010, 39.1 percent of black children - 4.3 million - lived in poverty, as did 12.4 percent of white children."
By Neal Broverman
September 28, 2011
Citing: Injustice at Every Turn: A Look at Black Respondents in the National Transgender Discrimination Surveyby the National Black Justice Coalition, National Center for Transgender Equality, and the National Gay & Lesbian Task Force
"[...] 'Injustice at Every Turn: A Look at Black Respondents in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey' [...] highlighted disparities in income, health care, and emotional well-being between transgender blacks and other transgender people. The new analysis, provided by research from the National Black Justice Coalition, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, and the National Center for Transgender Equality, finds that African-American trans people are indeed subjected to racial discrimination and transphobia that stymies their participation in society.
According to the findings:
'Black transgender people had an extremely high unemployment rate at 26%, two times the rate of the overall transgender sample and four times the rate of the general population.
[...] 41% of black respondents said they had experienced homelessness at some point in their lives, more than five times the rate of the general U.S. population.
Black transgender people lived in extreme poverty with 34% reporting a household income of less than $10,000 per year. This is more than twice the rate for transgender people of all races (15%), four times the general black population rate (9%), and eight times the general U.S. population rate (4%)
Black transgender people were affected by HIV in devastating numbers. More than one-fifth of respondents were living with HIV (20.23%), compared to a rate of 2.64% for transgender respondents of all races, 2.4% for the general Black population, and 0.60% of the general U.S. population.'"
To read the full article, click here. To download a free PDF of the full briefing paper, click here. To learn more about the National Black Justice Coalition, visit their website. To learn more about the National Center for Transgender Equality, visit their website. To learn more about the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, visit their website.
By Tami Luhby
September 23, 2011
Citing: Parsing U.S. Poverty at the Metropolitan Level by Alan Berube and Elizabeth Kneebone, Brookings Institution.
"[...] A record 15.4 million suburban residents lived below the poverty line last year, up 11.5% from the year before, according to a Brookings Institution analysis of Census data released Thursday. That's one-third of the nation's poor.
[... ] Since 2000, the number of suburban poor has skyrocketed by 53%, battered by the two recessions that wiped out many manufacturing jobs early on, and low-wage construction and retail positions more recently.
America's cities, meanwhile, had 12.7 million people in poverty last year, up about 5% from the year before and 23% since 2000. The remaining 18 millionpoor folks in the U.S. are roughly split between smaller metro areas and rural communities.
[...] The downturn also shifted where in suburbia poverty was intensifying. The collapse of the housing market caused the ranks of the poor to spike in Sun Belt communities, such as those surrounding Lakeland, Fla., and Riverside, Calif. Many low-income people had moved there during the boom to make money building and caring for homes or working in the retailers and restaurants that cropped up to service the new residents.
[...] Once they fall into poverty, suburbanites often have a harder time accessing services that can aid them because many of these areas aren't equipped to handle the growing numbers, especially amid government budget cuts [...]. Nearly three-quarters of suburban non-profit agencies said they are seeing more clients who had never accessed aid [...]. A growing number of requests were for help with food or housing."
By Rachel Moussié
Poverty Matters, a blog of The Guardian
September 19, 2011
Citing: World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development by the World Bank.
[...] The report's key message is that economic growth does lead to gender equality, but with the exception of a few "sticky" issues....Women and girls are still more likely to die than men and boys. Women continue to be over-represented in low-paying, low-skill and informal employment. Rates of violence against women remain stubbornly high in both high-income and low-income countries, while the number of political positions held by women is disproportionately small.
[... ] The WDR does stress the pressing need for women's ownership of and control over assets, particularly land [...]. It is [...] significant that the bank has emphasised women's control over land as a source not only of income, but also of status - and, more importantly, as a right.
[...] If the 2012 world development report succeeds in putting gender at the top of the bank's agenda, it's a good starting point. The bank's development committee is scheduled to discuss the report and its implications for bank practices at next week's annual meetings, and we can hope that some of the analysis will trickle down and influence their programmes and lending policies."
Research Reports ____________________________
Each selection includes a short excerpt from the research and a link to the report:
Institute for Women's Policy Research
"The Great Recession has been characterized by massive job loss for both women and men. It is as if a giant tsunami wave washed across the American economy and wiped millions of jobs away. As the wave recedes, people are attempting to rebuild their lives. The Institute for Women's Policy Research's (IWPR's) updated graphic shows that the tsunami has been both larger and longer lasting for men than for women, but that the recovery for men has at least begun, while women's job growth has so far failed to take hold. In fact, the job gap between women and men has been growing, but stabilized in August. In August 2011, neither men nor women gained jobs.
For men, the tsunami wave is receding as they slowly regain some of the jobs they lost. For women however, the recovery has not yet begun in earnest; women have regained only 9.1 percent (237,000) of the total jobs they lost in the recession (2.6 million from November 2007 to the trough for women's employment in September 2010, which occurred more than one year after the recession officially ended)."
Women's Scholar Forum
"In the current economic recovery, women are facing a gap in employment that jeopardizes the well-being and economic security of themselves and their families. This briefing paper, prepared by a group of scholars and researchers collaborating as the Women's Scholars Forum, proposes specific strategies to meet the needs of women facing joblessness in the recovery from the Great Recession of 2007-2009. This group, noting that women's earnings are essential to the welfare of their families, is especially concerned that federal programs reach those most in need, including single mothers, women of color, and those with less education [...]. [The] recommendations are organized in three parts. The first part proposes several major 'single-bullet' approaches. The second part addresses improving the employment of women in male-dominated jobs typically found in the energy, transportation, and construction industries. The third addresses the need to strengthen human infrastructure and increase support for caring labor."
Kevin Miller, Ph.D., and Sarah Towne
Institute for Women's Policy Research
"[...] After the introduction of paid sick days, San Francisco's percentage growth in civilian employment was strong and exceeded the average growth of the surrounding counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Between 2006 and 2007, civilian employment increased 4.0 percent in San Francisco, and 1.4 percent in the surrounding counties. From 2007 to 2008, San Francisco's civilian employment grew by 4.5 percent, with a 0.4 percent increase in the surrounding counties. The Great Recession was reflected in a negative growth rate (-3.5 percent) in San Francisco, but an even larger decline in the surrounding counties (-4.2 percent)-a pattern that was repeated in a comparison of 2009 and 2010 civilian employment (-1.0 percent for San Francisco and -1.1 percent in the surrounding counties) [...]. In accommodation and food services, a sector with typically low rates of access to paid sick days in jurisdictions without paid sick days laws, San Francisco's employment grew by 4.1 percent compared to 3.6 percent in the surrounding counties between 2006 and 2007. Employment increased by 3.1 percent in San Francisco and 1.4 percent for the surrounding counties between 2007 and 2008. The Great Recession led to job losses between 2008 and 2009 on the order of 5.2 percent in San Francisco and 4.5 percent in the surrounding counties, followed by growth in San Francisco (0.6 percent) with no growth in the surrounding counties between 2009 and 2010."
Institute for Women's Policy Research
"Banking and finance is an important source of employment for women, and women are six of ten employees in the industry. Yet, while women are half of all managers in the industry overall, they are significantly under-represented among the highest earners, and their share in high earning jobs varies considerably across different segments of the industry. Six of ten of the 5.35 million full-time/year-round employees in the industry are women (59 percent), but women are fewer than three of ten employees (26 percent) with high earnings of at least $100,000 per year. Women are the large majority (79 percent) of low earners, with annual incomes of less than $35,000 for full-time/year-round work. [...] Although women hold a significant share of managerial positions in each industry segment...women's share of management positions is not matched by an equivalent share of the highest earning positions [...]. 'Savings institutions, including credit unions' is the industry segment with the highest share of women overall, but also the one with the smallest number of employees, and, compared to other segments, a much smaller proportion of high earners."
Carola Suárez-Orozco, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Robert T. Teranishi, and Marcelo M. Suárez-Orozco
Harvard Educational Review
"Unauthorized immigrants account for approximately one-fourth of all immigrants in the United States, yet they dominate public perceptions and are at the heart of a policy impasse. Caught in the middle are the children of these immigrants-youth who are coming of age and living in the shadows. An estimated 5.5 million children and adolescents are growing up with unauthorized parents and are experiencing multiple and yet unrecognized developmental consequences as a result of their family's existence in the shadow of the law. Although these youth are American in spirit and voice, they are nonetheless members of families that are "illegal" in the eyes of the law. In this article, the authors develop a conceptual framework to systematically examine the ways in which unauthorized status affects the millions of children, adolescents, and emerging adults caught in its wake....An ecological framework brings to the foreground a variety of systemic levels shaping the daily experiences of children and youth as they move through the developmental spectrum. The article moves on to examine a host of critical developmental outcomes that have implications for child and youth well-being as well as for our nation's future."
Virginia P. Reno and Elisa A. Walker
National Academy of Social Insurance
"Micro-simulation of future benefits shows how recommendations by Alan Simpson and Erskine Bowles, co-chairs of the deficit commission appointed by President Obama, would lower Social Security benefits for almost all (92 percent) of seniors entitled to benefits in 2070. The cuts would affect all age and income groups: 88 percent of young elders (ages 62-69) and 97 percent of the oldest (ages 90 and older) are projected to receive lower benefits, as are 81 percent of seniors in the lowest household income quintile, 93 percent of the middle quintile, and 97 percent of the top quintile. Major benefit reductions - of 20 percent or more below the benefits scheduled in current law - are projected to befall about one in three women and one in two men. Slightly more than one in four black and Hispanic elders would experience cuts of 20 percent or more, as would half of all white elders and nearly half (45 percent) of middle income elders. The simulations show how Social Security proposals that rely mainly on benefit cuts to achieve long-term solvency would weaken retirement income security for the children and grandchildren of today's retirees across age, gender, income, and racial and ethnic groups.
Government Accountability Office
"The Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) on-the-job training program-a relatively small part of the federal aid highway program-requires states to implement job training programs to provide traditionally underrepresented groups with opportunities in highway construction. To increase the effectiveness of state job training programs, FHWA grants up to $10 million annually for supportive services, such as job placement assistance. This report examines the extent to which (1) FHWA's job training program enhances training and career opportunities for these groups, (2) FHWA oversees the job training programs, and (3) supportive services provide assistance to these programs. To address these topics GAO reviewed federal legislation, good management practices identified in prior GAO reports, FHWA documents, and proposals and reports submitted by states. GAO conducted an in-depth examination of these efforts in four states, and interviewed a cross-section of FHWA staff, state officials, and industry groups."
Jessica A. Bean, Marybeth J. Mattingly, and Andrew Schaefer
The Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire
"While understanding the overall landscape of national poverty provides a valuable snapshot of economic distress, these overall rates mask dramatic differences in poverty across age groups. In recent years, children have been the most likely citizens to live below the poverty line, with young children being particularly vulnerable. In this brief, we highlight changes in child poverty by region, state, and place type, and in young child poverty by region and place type. We focus on two time periods-change since 2007, as the nation entered the recession, and change since 2009, as the recession was ending. Our findings show that child poverty persists in the first full year post-recession, continuing to rise significantly in 22 states. These effects are exacerbated among young children (under age 6), who experienced both a higher rate of poverty and larger increase in poverty. It is important to understand young child poverty specifically, as children who are poor before age 6 are at risk for educational deficits and health problems, with effects that span the lifecourse [...]. Poverty continues to be highest in the South, where nearly one in four children lives in poverty. Southern child poverty is even higher in rural places and central cities, where rates top 30 percent. Among young children, rural Southern poverty now nears 36 percent."
MetLife Mature Market Institute and Scripps Gerontology Center
"This study reports additional findings from the 2011 study, Best-Case Strategies for a Flexible Retirement: The MetLife Study of Thinking About Retirement in Uncertain Times. This national survey of 1,007 retired and employed men andwomen ages 50 to 70 explored behaviors and attitudes related to retirementplanning with a particular focus on planning for unexpected expenses and lifeevents in retirement. In-depth structured interviews were also conducted with50 individuals and couples for additional experiences and personal insights. Forthe current study, data were analyzed to identify the nature and level ofwomen's retirement concerns as well as the characteristics and level of theirplanning behaviors. Implications for both women and men as well as findingsrelated to couples are included."
To download a free PDF of the full report, click here. To learn more about the Metlife Mature Market Institute, visit their website. To learn more about the Scripps Gerontology Center, visit their website.