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Latest Reports from IWPR

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The Status of Women in Connecticut's Workforce
by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D. (November 2014)

Women in Connecticut have made significant advances in the workforce in recent years but continue to face persistent disparities and inequities that often prevent them from reaching their full potential. Women’s labor force participation has increased over the last two decades, the gender wage gap has narrowed, and women are more likely than in the past to work in managerial or professional occupations. At the same time, many women in Connecticut experience a persistent gender wage gap, limited access to affordable child care, and low levels of education. In addition, women in the state face stark disparities in opportunities and access to resources across racial and ethnic groups and geographic locations. Addressing such challenges and disparities is essential to the continued advance- ment of women and to the well-being of Connecticut as a whole.

 

Women Gained 127,000 Jobs in October; Men Still 71,000 Short from Pre-Recession Employment Levels
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (November 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the November employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), although the total number of jobs lost in the recession has been recovered (139,680,000 jobs in October 2014 vs. 138,350,000 jobs in December 2007, when the recession began), men are still short 71,000 jobs from the start of the recession. In October, men gained 87,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls, while women gained 127,000 for an increase of 214,000 total jobs in October.

 

Women and Men in the Recovery: Where the Jobs Are; Women Recover Jobs Lost in Recession in Year Five
by Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Elyse Shaw, and Rachel O'Connor (November 2014)

While the number of jobs dropped steeply, particularly for men, in the Great Recession, slow job growth has characterized the recovery. In the first two years of the recovery, men saw faster job growth than women. By the third year of recovery, in terms of share of jobs lost that were regained, women’s job growth saw pronounced gains and largely caught up to men’s. Within the recovery’s fourth year, the percentage of lost jobs regained by women overall exceeded that of lost jobs regained by men. The fifth year of recovery saw women surpass their pre-recession levels of employment, while men have not yet made up their recession job losses. As of June 2014, men had regained 90.1 percent of the jobs they lost in the recession and women had regained 136.3 percent of theirs.

 

Stronger Job Growth in September Puts Men within Striking Distance of their Pre-Recession Employment Level
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (October 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the October employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), although the total number of jobs lost in the recession has been recovered (139,435,000 jobs in September 2014 vs. 138,350,000 jobs in December 2007 when the recession began), men are still short 142,000 jobs from the start of the recession. In September, men gained 147,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls, while women gained 101,000 for an increase of 248,000 total jobs in September. The unemployment rate decreased to 5.9 percent in September from 6.1 percent in August.

 

Summer 2014 Newsletter
by (September 2014)

 

Paid Sick Time Access in Minnesota Varies by County of Residence
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (September 2014)

 

The Gender Wage Gap: 2013
by Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. (September 2014)

The ratio of women’s and men’s median annual earnings was 78.3 percent for full-time/year-round workers in 2013. This means the gender wage gap for full-time/year-round workers is 21.7 percent. Women’s median annual earnings in 2013 were $39,157 compared with $50,033 for men. Neither women’s nor men’s earnings significantly improved compared with 2012. If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 45 years, until 2058, for men and women to reach parity.

 

Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s Median Earnings, 1960-2013 (Full-time, Year-round Workers) with Projection for Pay Equity in 2058
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (September 2014)

 

Access to Paid Sick Time in Minnesota
by Salina Tulachan and Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (September 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) finds that approximately 41 percent of workers living in Minnesota lack even a single paid sick day. This lack of access is even more pronounced among low-income and part-time workers. Access to paid sick days promotes safe and healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness and workplace injuries, reduces health care costs, and supports children and families by helping parents to fulfill their caregiving responsibilities. This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick days in Minnesota by sex, race and ethnicity, occupation, part/full-time employment status, and personal earnings through analysis of government data sources, including the 2010–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

Women Gained 2 Out of Every 3 Jobs Added in August; Men Still Short 350,000 Jobs from Pre-Recession Employment Levels
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (September 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the September employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), although the total number of jobs lost in the recession has been recovered (139,118,000 jobs in August 2014 vs 138,350,000 jobs in December 2007 when the recession began), men are still short 350,000 from the start of the recession. In August, men gained 51,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls, while women gained 91,000 for an increase of 142,000 total jobs in August. The unemployment rate decreased to 6.1 percent in August from 6.2 percent in July, essentially the same.

 

Washington, DC, Ranks Highest for Women's Employment and Earnings; West Virginia Ranks Lowest
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (September 2014)

States across the nation vary considerably in their progress toward women’s employment and earnings equity. On the Institute for Women’s Policy Research 2014 composite index on employment and earnings—which includes four key indicators of women’s status in the workforce—the District of Columbia ranks first in the nation and West Virginia ranks last. *Correction: An earlier version of this Quick Figures had the composite score for Maryland incorrectly listed as 4.40. With the change to 4.65, Maryland ranks second in the nation on the composite index, followed by Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey. The previous rankings had Massachusetts listed as second, Connecticut as third, New Jersey as fourth, and Maryland as fifth.

 

Access to Paid Sick Days in California
by Salina Tulachan and Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (August 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) finds that approximately 44 percent of workers living in California lack even a single paid sick day. This lack of access is even more pronounced among low-income and part-time workers and shows considerable variability across counties in California. Access to paid sick days promotes safe and healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness and workplace injuries, reduces health care costs, and supports children and families by helping parents to fulfill their caregiving responsibilities. This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick days in California by sex, race and ethnicity, occupation, part/full-time employment status, personal earnings and county of residence through analysis of government data sources, including the 2010–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

Women in Construction and the Economic Recovery: Results from 2013 IWPR Tradeswomen Survey
by Ariane Hegewisch and Brigid O'Farrell (August 2014)

This research-in-brief draws on the 2013 IWPR Tradeswomen Survey, an exploratory survey on the opportunities and challenges for women working in construction trades. The survey, distributed online to tradeswomen organizations and networks yielded responses from 219 U.S.-based tradeswomen from 33 states. The survey results present a mixed picture for women in construction. While many respondents are earning good wages, unemployment and underemployment are still high and nationally higher for women than men. The majority of respondents report that they feel largely treated equally to men, yet far too many report unequal treatment in hiring, training, assignments, and promotions. Three in ten respondents report high levels of harassment, and more than one in ten experienced severe enough employment discrimination to make a formal charge to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Fewer than five respondents in total reported having learned about opportunities in the trades through school or career counselors; schools and career counselors are failing to alert women to opportunities in construction even though construction jobs offer much higher potential earnings than most occupations that do not require college level education. These findings suggest that contractors, unions, and the government are failing to recruit, train, and ensure a safe workplace free of harassment for many women.

 

Access to Paid Sick Days in Orange County, Florida
by Salina Tulachan and Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (August 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) finds that approximately 45 percent of workers living in Orange County, Florida lack even a single paid sick day. This lack of access is even more pronounced among low-income and part-time workers. Access to paid sick days promotes safe and healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness and workplace injuries, reduces health care costs, and supports children and families by helping parents to fulfill their caregiving responsibilities. This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick days in Orange County by sex, race and ethnicity, industry, part/full-time employment status, and personal earnings through analysis of government data sources, including the 2010–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the 2010–2012 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

Access to Paid Sick Days in San Jose
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (August 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) reveals that about 35 percent of private sector employees in San Jose lack even a single paid sick day. Access to paid sick days promotes healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness, , increasing productivity, and supporting work and family balance. This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick days in San Jose by sex, race and ethnicity, industry, occupation, earnings, and family status through analysis of government data sources, including the 2011–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2009–2011 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

The Costs and Benefits of Paid Sick Days (Testimony before the Mayor's Task Force on Paid Sick Leave of Philadelphia)
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (August 2014)

Testimony of Jessica Milli, Ph.D., before the Mayor’s Task Force on Paid Sick Leave of Philadelphia (August 6, 2014)

 
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Access to Paid Sick Days in North Carolina
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (August 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) estimates that 39 percent of private sector employees working in North Carolina lack even a single paid sick day. This lack of access is even more pronounced among healthcare support workers who provide direct care: 49 percent currently lack access to paid sick days. Paid sick days can promote healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness, increasing productivity by allowing workers to avoid coming to work sick, reducing workplace injuries, and supporting work and family balance. This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick days in North Carolina by sex, race and ethnicity, occupation, hours worked, and earnings through analysis of government data sources, including the 2011–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

With Much-Needed Job Growth in July, Men Have Recovered 94% of Jobs They Lost in Recession
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (August 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the August employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), although the total number of jobs lost in the recession has been recovered (139,004,000 jobs in July 2014 vs 138,350,000 jobs in December 2007 when the recession began), men are still short 392,000 from their prerecession peak. In July, men gained 141,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls, while women gained 68,000 for an increase of 209,000 total jobs in July. BLS revisions of prior payroll jobs data for two previous months increased the number of jobs gained by men in May and June by 70,000, but decreased the number of jobs gained for women by 50,000 during the same period. For May, June, and July, two of three new jobs went to men. The unemployment rate increased to 6.2 percent in July from 6.1 percent in June, essentially the same.

 

Community College Students Need Fair Job Scheduling Practices
by Lindsey Reichlin, Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (July 2014)

Working is often critical to community college students’ ability to pursue a postsecondary education, but holding a job while in school can threaten a student’s success in college. For students to succeed at both school and work, they need jobs with predictable schedules and they need to have a say in scheduling so that work does not conflict with classes. This is especially important for students who are also parents, who must often schedule child care in addition to work and school.

 

Paid Sick Days Access Varies by Race/Ethnicity, and Job Characteristics
by Rachel O'Connor, Jeff Hayes, Ph.D., Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (July 2014)

Paid sick days bring multiple benefits to employers, workers, families, and communities at large. The economic and public health benefits of paid sick leave coverage are substantial, including safer work environments; reduced spread of contagion; and reduced health care costs. Access to this important benefit, however, is still too rare, and is unequally distributed across the U.S. population, with substantial differences by race and ethnicity, occupation, earnings levels, and work schedules. New data also reveals differences by sexual orientation, especially for men.

 
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