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Ariane Hegewisch, Program Director, Employment and Earnings

Latest Reports from IWPR

The Gender Wage Gap: 2014
by Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. (September 2015)

The ratio of women’s and men’s median annual earnings was 78.6 percent for full-time/year-round workers in 2014. This means the gender wage gap for full-time/year-round workers is 21.4 percent. Women’s median annual earnings in 2014 were $39,621 compared with $50,383 for men. Neither women’s nor men’s earnings significantly improved compared to 2013. If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 45 years, until 2059, for men and women to reach parity.

 

The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2014 and by Race and Ethnicity
by Ariane Hegewisch and Emily Ellis (April 2015)

Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men, or occupations with a more even mix of men and women. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 116 occupations; these include only one occupation—‘health practitioner support technologists and technicians’—in which women have exactly the same median weekly earnings as men, and one—‘stock clerks and order fillers’—where women earn slightly more than men. The occupation with the widest gap in earnings is ‘personal financial advisers,’ with a gender earnings ratio of just 61.3 percent. In 109 of the 116 occupations, the gender earnings ratio of women’s median weekly earnings to men’s is 0.95 or lower (that is, a wage gap of at least 5 cents per dollar earned by men); in 27 of these occupations the gender earnings ratio is lower than 0.75 (that is, a wage gap of more than 25 cents per dollar earned by men).

 

Women in the Construction Trades: Earnings, Workplace Discrimination, and the Promise of Green Jobs
by Ariane Hegewisch and Brigid O'Farrell (April 2015)

Based on the 2013 IWPR Tradeswomen Survey, an exploratory study of women working in construction trades, this report provides insights to working conditions for women in the construction industry, examines their earnings and employment experiences since the end of the Great Recession, and analyzes women’s motivations for pursuing green training and its impact on their employment. The report builds on a previous IWPR study, Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy, which mapped women’s underrepresentation in green growth occupations. The research was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation’s program Sustainable Employment in a Green U.S. Economy (SEGUE).

 

The Gender Wage Gap: 2014; Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity
by Ariane Hegewisch, Emily Ellis, and Heidi Hartmann (March 2015)

The gender wage gap in the United States has not seen significant improvements in recent years and remains a reality for women across racial and ethnic groups. In 2014, the ratio of women’s to men’s median weekly full-time earnings was 82.5 percent, an increase of just 0.4 percentage points since 2013, when the ratio was 82.1 percent. Women’s median weekly earnings for full-time work were $719 compared with $871 for men. Once controlling for inflation, neither women’s nor men’s median earnings significantly increased between 2013 and 2014.

 

Untapped Resources, Untapped Labor Pool: Using Federal Highway Funds to Prepare Women for Careers in Construction
by Ariane Hegewisch, Jane Henrici, Elyse Shaw, and Thomas Hooper (December 2014)

Women are underrepresented in highway, street, and bridge construction where employment is projected to grow by more than 20 percent until 2022. Creating sustainable pathways into construction careers fills critical hiring needs for industry while improving economic security for women, as these jobs typically provide family-supporting wages with good benefits. Activities to improve women’s recruitment and retention in skilled construction jobs are widely known, but dedicated funding for such activities is scarce. Federal highway funding offers states a stable resource that can support activities that improve women’s entry into and success in the construction trades. This briefing highlights examples of how two states, Maryland and Oregon, are using this funding to improve diversity in the highway construction workforce. The paper begins by discussing the lack of gender diversity in the construction workforce, describes the challenges and proven strategies for improving the pipeline into construction jobs for women, and outlines how federal highway dollars can be used to improve the diversity of this workforce by funding on-the-job training and support services. The briefing paper is based on a review of literature, pre-apprenticeship state-level evaluations and progress reports, and interviews with key stakeholders from Oregon, the tradeswomen community, and the U.S. Department of Transportation.

 

The Gender Wage Gap: 2013
by Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. (September 2014)

The ratio of women’s and men’s median annual earnings was 78.3 percent for full-time/year-round workers in 2013. This means the gender wage gap for full-time/year-round workers is 21.7 percent. Women’s median annual earnings in 2013 were $39,157 compared with $50,033 for men. Neither women’s nor men’s earnings significantly improved compared with 2012. If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 45 years, until 2058, for men and women to reach parity.

 

Women in Construction and the Economic Recovery: Results from 2013 IWPR Tradeswomen Survey
by Ariane Hegewisch and Brigid O'Farrell (August 2014)

This research-in-brief draws on the 2013 IWPR Tradeswomen Survey, an exploratory survey on the opportunities and challenges for women working in construction trades. The survey yielded responses from 219 U.S.-based tradeswomen from 33 states and presents a mixed picture for women in construction. While many respondents are earning good wages, unemployment and underemployment are still high. The majority of respondents report that they feel largely treated equally to men, yet far too many report unequal treatment in hiring, training, assignments, and promotions. Three in ten respondents report high levels of harassment. Fewer than five respondents in total reported having learned about opportunities in the trades through school or career counselors. These findings suggest that contractors, labor unions, and the government are failing to recruit, train, and ensure a safe workplace free of harassment for many women.

 
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